2 What are the different forms of psilocybin mushrooms?
11 Psilocybin mushroom harm reduction advice
What are psilocybin mushrooms (magic mushrooms)?
psilocybin uk mushrooms are naturally occurring mushrooms which contain the psychoactive compound psilocybin. More than 180 psilocybin-containing mushrooms species are found all over the world and can induce hallucinogenic/psychedelic effects when consumed. Psilocybin is converted by the body to psilocin, and this is the actual compound which produces their psychoactive effects. Additional chemicals commonly present in minor amounts include baeocystin and norbaeocystin, although the extent to which these contribute to the overall effects is unclear.
The small and potent liberty cap mushroom (Psilocybe semilanceata) is probably the most common and widespread species found in Europe. Other species occur in the wild, and Psilocybe cubensis is cultivated indoors.
Even though the psychoactive effects of every type of ‘magic mushroom’ are brought about by psilocybin, different types of psilocybin mushroom can have different types of psychedelic effects, and science is still researching how these effects can vary in type and strength over different strains.
What are the different forms of psilocybin mushrooms?
Psilocybin mushrooms are naturally occurring — they either grow out of the ground or are cultivated from mycelium spores. Different strains of psilocybin mushrooms grow naturally all over the world and some people have been known to forage for them. Picking these mushrooms yourself, however, can be dangerous. There are over 10,000 species of known mushroom, some of which are poisonous to humans. Without knowledge of the different types, species and dangers of various fungi, it can be easy to confuse one mushroom with another and pick one which will leave you comatosed, as opposed to one which will give you a psychedelic trip.
Mushrooms are composed of around 90% water and so when dried they lose around 90% of their mass. This means that the same dose of magic mushrooms in a dried form will be around 10x lower in weight than a fresh dose.
If the moisture isn’t extracted from mushrooms when they’re picked they can rot fairly quickly, which destroys not only the mushroom itself but also the psilocybin contained within. Eating rotten magic mushrooms is never a good idea — the mould will cause severe stomach issues without any kind of psychedelic experience.
The market for magic mushrooms is illicit and unregulated as psilocybin mushrooms are illegal in almost every country. The danger of purchasing any kind of magic mushrooms (fresh or dried) is that, unless you’re an expert, you will not know exactly which strain you’re purchasing. There are many different types of psilocybe mushrooms and some are stronger than others. Consuming a dose you believe to be a weak strain may bring about unexpected and unpleasant effects if turns out to be a different or a stronger variety.
Magic mushrooms can also come in powdered form; sold as capsules or as the powder itself. The dangers of purchasing/receiving psilocybin in this form are greater than the fresh or dried variety. It is far easier to add adulterants to powder which greatly increases the dangers of substances of unknown origin, quality and quantity being mixed into what you believe is pure psilocybin powder.
It is important to recognise that natural products tend to vary in strength even within the same species and across locations. Psilocybin mushrooms are consumed in many ways, fresh or dried, for example, brewed into a tea, put into food, ground-up or just eaten as they are. As mushrooms are almost entirely water, a dose of fresh mushrooms will weigh around 10 times more than the same dose dried. Microdosing psilocybin has become increasingly popular but there is very little research into microdosing at this stage.
How does psilocybin work as a drug in the body and brain?
Psilocybin and psilocin are known as psychedelic tryptamines and they have very similar molecular structures to a key chemical messenger called serotonin. Serotonin has some very important functions in our brains and digestive systems, including large influences over-regulating our moods, sleep cycles and stress-coping mechanisms.
Due to this similarity in molecular structure, psilocin molecules activate the same receptors in the brain that serotonin activates, particularly at a specific receptor site known as 5HT2A. This particular receptor mediates many different functions in our minds; like mood, imagination, learning and perception.
A large portion of these 5HT2A receptors are located in cells in the cortex; an area of the brain associated with reasoning and rational thought. These cells are also quite long — they span an area of the brain larger than many other cells and therefore have a wider influence over brain activity.
Psilocin sits into these receptors and activates them, thereby producing the characteristic ‘trip’ of a magic mushroom experience, which can include changes in mood, imagination and perception. Recent research has also shown psilocin has an effect on a part of the brain known as the Default Mode Network (DMN).
Our DMN’s are like our brain’s main information highways. They act as consolidation centres while we go about our daily lives, compiling information quietly in the background. They also allow us to ‘time travel’ in our minds, giving us the ability to think back to the past and plan into the future. Some also theorise our DMN’s are home to our individualities; that they house our senses of ‘self’.
Psilocin temporarily disables one or more of the DMN’s ‘connector hubs’. This temporary shutdown of our brain’s main information highway means the brain cannot connect with the different parts of itself like it usually does, and is instead forced to connect in ways it does not usually. This means the brain starts communicating with parts of itself it doesn’t normally ‘talk’ to, which means the brain creates new connections while under the influence of psilocin.
Our understanding of exactly how psilocin affects the brain is not yet complete, and scientific research continues.
What are the effects of psilocybin mushrooms?
Psilocybin mushrooms produce changes in a user’s consciousness, mood, perception and sensory experience. These changes are classically known as a psychedelic ‘trip’, and can last anywhere between 2–6 hours. The intensity of the trip is directly related to the dose consumed and the strength of the mushrooms in terms of their psilocybin content.
A commonly reported effect is that the mind seems to become more open under the influence of psilocybin and sensory experience can become very intense.
This means things which a person would normally find aesthetically pleasing (art, nature, music etc) can become far more beautiful on psilocybin than when sober, but it can also mean that normal sensory experience can become overwhelming. Being in a crowded place like a street or a nightclub, for example, can become difficult because of the sheer amount of sensory input which can easily overwhelm the mind and the senses. The optimum physical setting for a psilocybin mushrooms experience is somewhere comfortable and familiar, where the amount of sensory input is low or can be controlled, like at home or in a peaceful open space.
Key effects of the experience include thinking in new, interesting or peculiar ways; having emotions far more connected to sensory experiences; having your gaze directed inward toward your own emotions or character; experiencing time distortions; experiencing visual and auditory hallucinations; and, at very high doses, experiencing ego death.
Given that psilocybin seems to connect parts of the brain in novel and interesting ways; different, fascinating, odd and sometimes scary ways of thinking can present themselves to the user. There is little one can do to predict the ways a psychedelic trip will go, and the best practice is to ensure a positive mindset and comfortable setting prior to the trip.
Hallucinations can occur based on the strength, type and dosage of the magic mushroom consumed and can include changes in perception of sounds, closed-eye visuals and open-eye visuals.
Closed-eye visuals can range anywhere from seeing fractal patterns and vivid colours to experiencing dream-like sequences and deeply-set memories, all with your eyes closed. Open-eye visuals can include hallucinations of your environment, like colours becoming much more vibrant, surfaces seeming to ripple or ‘breathe’ before your eyes, patterns forming, moving or rotating as you observe and much more. At higher doses objects and environments may morph into different things and you may experience things that are not really there.
Auditory hallucinations can include sounds becoming clearer, crisper or more distorted or layered with meaning. The perception and appreciation of music or words/language can also change.
At very high doses users may experience something known as ego death. This is an intense experience when your sense of self can (seemingly) cease to exist, which can be frightening, strange, or enlightening, or all three. A high dose is not recommended, especially to first time users or those not overly familiar with the trip, as ego death can be a very intense experience.
Do psilocybin mushrooms have medical uses?
Psilocybin mushrooms have potential medical uses in the treatment of mental illnesses and disorders such as depression, anxiety, alcoholism and PTSD, and potential therapeutic uses for things like counselling and even grief.
Numerous studies have been carried out (most notably by David Nutt and Imperial College, London) into the usefulness of psilocybin uk mushrooms, particularly in the treatment of depression. The findings of these studies show a high correlation between controlled psilocybin experiences and the lessening of depression in subjects, sometimes from as little as one psilocybin experience.
Studies have also shown a correlation between microdosing psilocybin (consuming a dose far smaller than that which would produce psychedelic effects) and the treatment of smaller conditions like migraines and cluster headaches. However, there is very little research into microdosing at this moment in time and many believe the effects to be purely placebo.
Medical administration of psilocybin for the purposes of treatment should only be carried out by registered professionals and you should not attempt medical use of psilocybin yourself.
Research on psilocybin therapy continues — for more detailed information on the medical applications of psilocybin, based on clinical trials
What are the risks of using buy psilocybin uk mushrooms? can they be avoided or reduced?
The main risks of psilocybin uk are experiencing a ‘bad trip’. A bad trip can encompass various negative experiences but can include feeling incredibly uncomfortable within yourself or your environment, not being able to properly communicate with others, and losing touch with reality, among a whole host of other potential factors.
The most dangerous of these is losing touch with reality somewhere which could have dangerous consequences. It can become almost impossible to think or act ‘normally’ under the influence of psilocybin, and if a person is somewhere which requires their mental faculties to stay safe, for example on a busy street, a crowded area or high-up somewhere, there can be a serious risk to life.
HPPD and ‘flashbacks’
HPPD is a very unusual and poorly understood harmful effect of having taken hallucinogenic drugs. There are few or no good quality formal accounts of psilocybin causing HPPD (LSD is more commonly the cause) but it likely to be possible, and could go unrecognised.
It is most often experienced as re-appearance of some of the effects experienced during the previously occurring hallucinogenic drug experience after some time without the drug. In most cases HPPD follows a traumatic hallucinogenic drug experience (‘bad trip’). In some cases, sufferers may feel detached from normality or the world.
HPPD has been reported occasionally as longer-lasting, though complete or partial recovery usually occurs after weeks or months. Lingering HPPD has been associated mostly with LSD rather than psilocybin, and often involves higher doses and drug combinations. This kind of HPPD may occur in people with underlying psychiatric conditions or genetic vulnerabilities, but the evidence is very incomplete.
Are there health conditions that make buy psilocybin uk mushrooms more dangerous?
Compared to legal drugs like alcohol and nicotine, which can cause considerable physical harm to users (risk of harm to health and body from consuming the substance), psilocybin carries a low risk of physical harm.
Psilocybin is generally considered to have a very low potential for physical harm, but the risks associated with the consumption of the drug are significant if not done responsibly. Psilocybin is widely considered to be of low risk to health by the scientific community, but it still has its associated risks.
The main one of these is that given psilocybin can produce a potent hallucinogenic state, those with prior personal or family histories of psychosis, schizophrenia or psychological disorders should steer clear of psilocybin. This is because a psilocybin experience could exacerbate potential symptoms or bring them to the surface.
Mixing psilocybin mushrooms with other drugs
Psilocybin should not be mixed with any other illicit drugs, alcohol or nicotine. Drug combinations can be unpredictable, dangerous and potentially even fatal.
Psilocybin should not be mixed with any psychiatric medication or any anti-depressants such as SSRIs or MAOIs. Psilocybin molecules are theorised to affect the same neural receptors as some prescription drugs and they should not be mixed to exclude any potential for adverse drug-drug interactions.
How addictive are psilocybin mushrooms?
Psilocybin uk mushrooms seem to have a very low potential for addiction in humans. There have not been any significant cases of people becoming detrimentally addicted to mushrooms.
Psilocybin molecules have not been seen to change the supply of any endogenous neurotransmitters, nor do they affect activation of neural receptors through the use of the brain’s existing supply of neurotransmitters (like cocaine or MDMA do).
Instead, psilocybin molecules seem to mediate their effects through activating 2A serotonin receptors while leaving the brain’s existing supply of serotonin untouched. This prevents the potential for upregulation or downregulation of neurotransmitters, and therefore strongly negates the potential for physical addiction.
The body has a high tolerance for repeated use of psilocybin mushrooms. A user consuming psilocybin one day would have a far diminished effect consuming the same amount the next day. The body’s ability to quickly create a high tolerance for psilocybin means there is a low potential for addiction.
Psilocybin mushroom harm reduction advice
Magic mushrooms have relatively low risks to physical health compared to many other drugs because they are not considered addictive and are rarely used regularly. However, tripping on a psychedelic drug has the potential to produce overwhelming and intensely unpleasant experiences.
The best method of staying safe from psilocybin mushrooms is not to consume them at all, but if a person is going to consume them there are some safety practices which should be followed.
Making sure you have the right mushrooms
buy Psilocybin uk mushrooms can sometimes look similar to other non-psilocybin mushrooms. Getting psilocybe mushrooms mixed up with other mushrooms can be harmless in the best-case scenario or fatal in the worst-case scenario.
Poisonous varieties of mushrooms do exist in nature and great care must be taken when choosing a type of mushroom to consume. This is especially a danger if a person is picking wild mushrooms without the proper knowledge or guidance.
There are also many different types of buy psilocybin uk mushrooms. Some are weaker in effect and some are stronger — even mistaking a strong variety for a weak one can have unintended consequences by making a trip more intense than anticipated.
It is imperative to know what kind of mushroom you are consuming before you consume it. If you are unsure, do not take them or consult a mycologist or someone who is familiar with varieties ad types of mushrooms.
Dosage and Measurement
Dosage is extremely important when taking any kind of substance as dosage directly affects the intensity of a trip and/or health risks of a substance.
As psilocybin mushrooms have a very low potential for adverse physical health risks, taking too high of a dose may not do any physiological harm but it will often cause a very intense, unsettling or uncomfortable experience which could leave psychological damage.
The dosage of psilocybin uk buy mushrooms differs depending on whether the mushrooms are fresh or dried. As mushrooms are composed of about 90% water, dried varieties will often have a dosage of 10x less than fresh varieties.
For example, if an average dose of fresh psilocybin mushrooms is 20g, the dosage of the same variety of dried mushrooms would be 2g.
Before consuming any psilocybin uk mushrooms (fresh or dried) it is very important to accurately weigh them to ensure the correct dosage. Accurate gram and milligram scales are widely available and should be used to ensure the dosage is correct.
Set and Setting
After ensuring you have the correct type of psilocybin uk buy mushroom and accurately measuring the dosage, your set and setting has a strong impact on whether you have a good or bad experience.
Set refers to your mindset. A common effect of the substance is the exaggeration of what you are already feeling. A positive mindset or, at the very least, a neutral mindset is key to the psilocybin experience. If a user is in a highly anxious, fearful or in an otherwise negative state of mind before consuming mushrooms, it is likely these emotions will spill over into the psychedelic experience and cause a bad trip. Conversely, if you are in a positive mood the psilocybin is likely to lift that mood and reflect more of what you are feeling, leading to a happy, insightful and even euphoric experience.
If you are in a bad or negative frame of mind, buy psilocybin uk may magnify what you’re feeling, which is an almost surefire way to have a bad trip (if you’re not under the supervision of a professional). Tripping on psilocybin mushrooms when in a negative state of mind may lead to strong feelings of anxiety, discomfort, fear or even terror.
Setting refers to your environment. Common effects of psilocybin can range from visual distortions and hallucinations to deep-diving into one’s mind or personality. The substance seems to make the brain open to all and any sensory experience during the trip. This means if you are in a loud, crowded, unfamiliar or otherwise uncomfortable environment it is very likely to lead to a bad trip, even if you begin with a positive mindset.
It is very important to ensure your environment is familiar, comfortable and you are with people you trust before embarking on a psilocybin uk buy trip. Not doing so will almost certainly lead to a negative experience.
It is an idea to have a trusted, sober person present when on a psilocybin uk trip. This person, known as a ‘tripsitter,’ can ensure everyone is safe, has a positive experience and can deal with any potentially situations which may arise.
Situations like these can include when a user has a bad experience and doesn’t know what’s real or not — the tripsitter can bring them back to reality and ensure them whatever they’re thinking or experiencing is not real and the drug will eventually wear off. Reassuring comments and gestures are helpful, as is making sure those who are tripping are not feeling anxious or uncomfortable.
An ideal tripsitter would be someone who has also experienced positive psilocybin trips. This means they understand the feeling of the trip and what is needed to effectively tripsit. Psilocybin can make users very sensitive to their own moods and the moods of others. Having a tripsitter who is judgemental or does not agree with consuming psilocybin mushrooms will very much negatively affect the experience of those tripping.
Killing the High
Colloquial evidence and user trip-reports suggest the psilocybin high can be cut short or ‘killed’ by consuming sugary foods & drinks like sweets, carbohydrates or fruit juices. It is theorised the sugars break down the psilocin in the blood, speeding up the process of bringing the user back to sobriety/reality quicker.
There is not much scientific evidence to support this theory, but if a user is having a bad trip and/or wants to come down, consuming sugary foods or drinks will not do any harm.
buy psilocybin uk mushroom (magic mushroom) myths and misunderstandings
Do Psilocybin Mushrooms cause brain damage?
From the 1960s there was a popular theory that psilocybin mushrooms (and drugs in general, especially hallucinogens) caused permanent brain damage from just one-time consumption.
There is no scientific evidence that this is true, and science does not show one-time or infrequent use of psilocybin mushrooms has any vastly detrimental effects on the brain. In fact, studies have even suggested psilocybin helps create and connect brain cells.
However, there are few studies showing what regular use of psilocybin does to the brain. From this respect, it is best to space trips out (3 months apart, at the least), in order to stay safe but also to maximise the positive outcomes from trips and minimise the building of physical tolerance.
Are fly agaric mushrooms (Amanita muscaria) psilocybin uk buy mushrooms?
No. Fly agaric mushrooms (the fairytale toadstools with white spots on red) belong to a different family and should not be confused with psilocybin-containing mushrooms. Rather than psilocybin, the key chemicals associated with the psychoactive effects include ibotenic acid and muscimol. Effects can include twitching, drooling, sweating, dizziness, vomiting and delirium, very unlike the fairly mild physical effects of psilocybin mushrooms. Fly agaric mushrooms do not appear to be a popular recreational drug. In the UK, when the sale of fresh psilocybin mushrooms became controlled, some shops started selling dried fly agaric mushrooms as a non-controlled alternative. However, there is a risk that these types of products might contain a range of added substances, especially when powdered samples are involved. The fly agaric and commercially available products of that nature should not be considered a legal alternative to psilocybin mushrooms as their effects and risks are very different.
What are psilocybin magic mushrooms?
What is Psilocybin? The main ingredient in magic mushrooms is psilocybin, which have chemical make-ups such as 4-phosphoryloxy-N, N-dimethyltryptamine. It is a category of the psychedelic household which is a renowned team of hallucinogenic drugs.
Is psilocybin poisonous?
Buy psilocybin UK According to scientific studies, psilocybin has a low risk of poisoning, reliance, or overdose. However, it can cause some unfavorable effects. The most normal negative effects of magic mushrooms contain the following:
What is psilocybin therapy and how does it work?
Psilocybin therapy has been found to be an effective treatment for anxiety, depression, addiction, and other mental health conditions. Mushroom therapy has been used for centuries in cultures around the world for its healing properties.
Is psilocybin uk buy legal in the UK?
Despite a mounting body of clinical evidence demonstrating its medical efficacy, psilocybin remains a Schedule 1 substance in the UK. This places the psychoactive compound under the most stringent and restrictive regulations, with a licence issued by the Home Office required to lawfully produce or possess psilocybin – even for research purposes.